cirq.sim.SimulatorBase

A base class for the built-in simulators.

Inherits From: SimulatesIntermediateState, SimulatesFinalState, SimulatesSamples, Sampler

Most implementors of this interface should implement the _create_partial_act_on_args and _create_step_result methods. The first one creates the simulator's quantum state representation at the beginning of the simulation. The second creates the step result emitted after each Moment in the simulation.

Iteration in the subclass is handled by the _core_iterator implementation here, which handles moment stepping, application of operations, measurement collection, and creation of noise. Simulators with more advanced needs can override the implementation if necessary.

Sampling is handled by the implementation of _run. This implementation iterates the circuit to create a final step result, and samples that result when possible. If not possible, due to noise or classical probabilities on a state vector, the implementation attempts to fully iterate the unitary prefix once, then only repeat the non-unitary suffix from copies of the state obtained by the prefix. If more advanced functionality is required, then the _run method can be overridden.

Note that state here refers to simulator state, which is not necessarily a state vector. The included simulators and corresponding states are state vector, density matrix, Clifford, and MPS. Each of these use the default _core_iterator and _run methods.

dtype The numpy.dtype used by the simulation.
noise A noise model to apply while simulating.
seed The random seed to use for this simulator.
ignore_measurement_results If True, then the simulation will treat measurement as dephasing instead of collapsing process. This is only applicable to simulators that can model dephasing.
split_untangled_states If True, optimizes simulation by running unentangled qubit sets independently and merging those states at the end.

Methods

run

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Samples from the given Circuit.

By default, the run_async method invokes this method on another thread. So this method is supposed to be thread safe.

Args
program The circuit to sample from.
param_resolver Parameters to run with the program.
repetitions The number of times to sample.

Returns
Result for a run.

run_async

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Asynchronously samples from the given Circuit.

By default, this method invokes run synchronously and simply exposes its result is an awaitable. Child classes that are capable of true asynchronous sampling should override it to use other strategies.

Args
program The circuit to sample from.
repetitions The number of times to sample.

Returns
An awaitable Result.

run_batch

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Runs the supplied circuits.

Each circuit provided in programs will pair with the optional associated parameter sweep provided in the params_list, and be run with the associated repetitions provided in repetitions (if repetitions is an integer, then all runs will have that number of repetitions). If params_list is specified, then the number of circuits is required to match the number of sweeps. Similarly, when repetitions is a list, the number of circuits is required to match the length of this list.

By default, this method simply invokes run_sweep sequentially for each (circuit, parameter sweep, repetitions) tuple. Child classes that are capable of sampling batches more efficiently should override it to use other strategies. Note that child classes may have certain requirements that must be met in order for a speedup to be possible, such as a constant number of repetitions being used for all circuits. Refer to the documentation of the child class for any such requirements.

Args
programs The circuits to execute as a batch.
params_list Parameter sweeps to use with the circuits. The number of sweeps should match the number of circuits and will be paired in order with the circuits.
repetitions Number of circuit repetitions to run. Can be specified as a single value to use for all runs, or as a list of values, one for each circuit.

Returns
A list of lists of TrialResults. The outer list corresponds to the circuits, while each inner list contains the TrialResults for the corresponding circuit, in the order imposed by the associated parameter sweep.

run_sweep

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Samples from the given Circuit.

In contrast to run, this allows for sweeping over different parameter values.

Args
program The circuit to sample from.
params Parameters to run with the program.
repetitions The number of times to sample.

Returns
Result list for this run; one for each possible parameter resolver.

run_sweep_async

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Asynchronously sweeps and samples from the given Circuit.

By default, this method invokes run_sweep synchronously and simply exposes its result is an awaitable. Child classes that are capable of true asynchronous sampling should override it to use other strategies.

Args
program The circuit to sample from.
params One or more mappings from parameter keys to parameter values to use. For each parameter assignment, repetitions samples will be taken.
repetitions The number of times to sample.

Returns
An awaitable Result.

run_sweep_iter

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Runs the supplied Circuit, mimicking quantum hardware.

In contrast to run, this allows for sweeping over different parameter values.

Args
program The circuit to simulate.
params Parameters to run with the program.
repetitions The number of repetitions to simulate.

Returns
Result list for this run; one for each possible parameter resolver.

sample

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Samples the given Circuit, producing a pandas data frame.

Args
program The circuit to sample from.
repetitions The number of times to sample the program, for each parameter mapping.
params Maps symbols to one or more values. This argument can be a dictionary, a list of dictionaries, a cirq.Sweep, a list of cirq.Sweep, etc. The program will be sampled repetition times for each mapping. Defaults to a single empty mapping.

Returns
A pandas.DataFrame with a row for each sample, and a column for each measurement key as well as a column for each symbolic parameter. Measurement results are stored as a big endian integer representation with one bit for each measured qubit in the key. See cirq.big_endian_int_to_bits and similar functions for how to convert this integer into bits. There is an also index column containing the repetition number, for each parameter assignment.

Examples:

a, b, c = cirq.LineQubit.range(3)
sampler = cirq.Simulator()
circuit = cirq.Circuit(cirq.X(a),
                       cirq.measure(a, key='out'))
print(sampler.sample(circuit, repetitions=4))
   out
0    1
1    1
2    1
3    1
circuit = cirq.Circuit(cirq.X(a),
                       cirq.CNOT(a, b),
                       cirq.measure(a, b, c, key='out'))
print(sampler.sample(circuit, repetitions=4))
   out
0    6
1    6
2    6
3    6
circuit = cirq.Circuit(cirq.X(a)**sympy.Symbol('t'),
                       cirq.measure(a, key='out'))
print(sampler.sample(
    circuit,
    repetitions=3,
    params=[{'t': 0}, {'t': 1}]))
   t  out
0  0    0
1  0    0
2  0    0
0  1    1
1  1    1
2  1    1

sample_expectation_values

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Calculates estimated expectation values from samples of a circuit.

Please see also cirq.work.measure_observables for more control over how to measure a suite of observables.

This method can be run on any device or simulator that supports circuit sampling. Compare with simulate_expectation_values in simulator.py, which is limited to simulators but provides exact results.

Args
program The circuit which prepares a state from which we sample expectation values.
observables A list of observables for which to calculate expectation values.
num_samples The number of samples to take. Increasing this value increases the statistical accuracy of the estimate.
params Parameters to run with the program.
permit_terminal_measurements If the provided circuit ends in a measurement, this method will generate an error unless this is set to True. This is meant to prevent measurements from ruining expectation value calculations.

Returns
A list of expectation-value lists. The outer index determines the sweep, and the inner index determines the observable. For instance, results[1][3] would select the fourth observable measured in the second sweep.

simulate

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Simulates the supplied Circuit.

This method returns a result which allows access to the entire simulator's final state.

Args
program The circuit to simulate.
param_resolver Parameters to run with the program.
qubit_order Determines the canonical ordering of the qubits. This is often used in specifying the initial state, i.e. the ordering of the computational basis states.
initial_state The initial state for the simulation. The form of this state depends on the simulation implementation. See documentation of the implementing class for details.

Returns
SimulationTrialResults for the simulation. Includes the final state.

simulate_moment_steps

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Returns an iterator of StepResults for each moment simulated.

If the circuit being simulated is empty, a single step result should be returned with the state being set to the initial state.

Args
circuit The Circuit to simulate.
param_resolver A ParamResolver for determining values of Symbols.
qubit_order Determines the canonical ordering of the qubits. This is often used in specifying the initial state, i.e. the ordering of the computational basis states.
initial_state The initial state for the simulation. This can be either a raw state or a TActOnArgs. The form of the raw state depends on the simulation implementation. See documentation of the implementing class for details.

Returns
Iterator that steps through the simulation, simulating each moment and returning a StepResult for each moment.

simulate_sweep

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Wraps computed states in a list.

Prefer overriding simulate_sweep_iter.

simulate_sweep_iter

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Simulates the supplied Circuit.

This method returns a result which allows access to the entire state vector. In contrast to simulate, this allows for sweeping over different parameter values.

Args
program The circuit to simulate.
params Parameters to run with the program.
qubit_order Determines the canonical ordering of the qubits. This is often used in specifying the initial state, i.e. the ordering of the computational basis states.
initial_state The initial state for the simulation. This can be either a raw state or an OperationTarget. The form of the raw state depends on the simulation implementation. See documentation of the implementing class for details.

Returns
List of SimulationTrialResults for this run, one for each possible parameter resolver.