An effect with known bounds on how easy it is to detect.

Used when deciding whether or not an operation is negligible. For example, the trace distance between the states before and after a Z**0.00000001 operation is very close to 0, so it would typically be considered negligible.



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A maximum on the trace distance between val's input and output.

Generally this method is used when deciding whether to keep gates, so only the behavior near 0 is important. Approximations that overestimate the maximum trace distance are permitted. If, for any case, the bound exceeds 1, this function will return 1. Underestimates are not permitted.