A swap network that acquaints qubits in one half with qubits in the

Inherits From: PermutationGate, Gate


Acts on 2k qubits, acquainting some of the first k qubits with some of the latter k. May have the effect permuting the qubits within each half.

Possible subgraphs include: MATCHING: acquaints qubit 1 with qubit (2k - 1), qubit 2 with qubit (2k- 2), and so on through qubit k with qubit k + 1. COMPLETE: acquaints each of qubits 1 through k with each of qubits k + 1 through 2k.

part_size The number of qubits in each half.
subgraph The bipartite subgraph of pairs of qubits to acquaint.
swap_gate The gate used to swap logical indices.

part_size See above.
subgraph See above.
swap_gate See above.



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Returns a controlled version of this gate. If no arguments are specified, defaults to a single qubit control.

num_controls: Total number of control qubits. control_values: For which control qubit values to apply the sub gate. A sequence of length num_controls where each entry is an integer (or set of integers) corresponding to the qubit value (or set of possible values) where that control is enabled. When all controls are enabled, the sub gate is applied. If unspecified, control values default to 1. control_qid_shape: The qid shape of the controls. A tuple of the expected dimension of each control qid. Defaults to (2,) * num_controls. Specify this argument when using qudits.


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The number of qubits this gate acts on.


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Returns an application of this gate to the given qubits.

*qubits The collection of qubits to potentially apply the gate to.


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Returns a list of operations applying the gate to all targets.

*targets The qubits to apply this gate to. For single-qubit gates this can be provided as varargs or a combination of nested iterables. For multi-qubit gates this must be provided as an Iterable[Sequence[Qid]], where each sequence has num_qubits qubits.

Operations applying this gate to the target qubits.

ValueError If targets are not instances of Qid or Iterable[Qid]. If the gate qubit number is incompatible.
TypeError If a single target is supplied and it is not iterable.


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permutation = {i: s[i]} indicates that the i-th element is mapped to the s[i]-th element.


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Updates a mapping (in place) from qubits to logical indices.

mapping The mapping to update.
keys The qubits acted on by the gate.


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Checks if this gate can be applied to the given qubits.

By default checks that:

  • inputs are of type Qid
  • len(qubits) == num_qubits()
  • qubit_i.dimension == qid_shape[i] for all qubits

Child classes can override. The child implementation should call super().validate_args(qubits) then do custom checks.

qubits The sequence of qubits to potentially apply the gate to.


  • ValueError: The gate can't be applied to the qubits.


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Call self as a function.


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Return self==value.


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